Sun Salutation - All you need to know

Sun Salutation – All You Need To Know

Sun Salutation (Surya Namaskar) in Yoga
Sun Salutation (Surya Namaskar) in Yoga
By World Yoga Forum

Sun salutation (Surya Namaskar) is a holistic exercise that promotes physical as well as mental health benefits. It is an ancient Indian method of offering prayers to the rising Sun in the morning along with a series of physical postures with regulated breathing aiming at range of physical, mental and spiritual benefits. It revitalizes each and every cell of the body, gives physical strength, flexibility, and mental calmness. In Sanskrit literature, “surya” means sun, and the word “namaskar” means salutation. Therefore, this practice is known as the “Surya namaskar” or ‘salutation to the sun’.

Introduction to Sun Salutation

Practicing Sun Salutation (Surya namaskar) before beginning routine activities vitalizes the practitioner and gives a completely energized day. Hence, it is believed that practicing sun salutation in the early morning at an empty stomach is the most effective. [1] [2] It has been said (by the old Rishis of India) that the distinctive parts of the body are administered by various Devas (divine motivations or awesome light). The sun powered plexus (situated behind the navel, which is the essential issue of the human body) is said to be associated with the Sun. This is the primary motivation behind why the old Rishis suggested the act of sun salutation, on the grounds that the consistent routine of this method improves the sun based plexus, which expands one’s inventiveness and instinctive capacities. Sun salutation is a series of asanas with strict breathing pattern. It revitalizes each and every cell of the body, gives physical strength, flexibility, and mental calmness. [2]

Origins of Sun Salutation

Before diving into the process of practicing sun salutation, let’s take a brief look into the origin of the sun salutation. Sun salutation is a complete physical exercise that is believed to be conceived and propagated by the King of Aundh, Late Shrimant Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi in the 1920s and later by Sri K V Iyer, and Sri Krishnamacharya. The Danda exercises explained in Vyayama Dipika were found to be the basis for Sun salutation models presented by Sri Krishnamacharya. Dandaal is an ancient common and important physical training practiced in India by wrestlers, and martial artists. The push-ups used for bodybuilding purposes in western countries could have been originated from Dandaal. [1] Sun salutation became a traditional blend of the practice of two different systems such as physical culture and Yoga and thus it heads out to be the forerunner practice of modern-day physical exercises. Further simplified versions were used by other schools of Yoga including Swami Sivananda Yoga Vedanta centre, Bihar School of Yoga (BSY), Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (SVYASA) and were progressively incorporated into modern-day yogic practices. [1]

Sun salutation includes a series of asanas (specific poses of the body) which are – pranam asana, hasta utthanasana, hast padasana, ashwa sanchalanasana, chaturang dandasana, ashtanga namasakar, bhujangasana, and parvatasana. There are a total of 12 steps in Surya namaskar practice and 24 steps in one round. This is in the form of salutation to the “Sun” along with chanting the twelve names of the sun god. While doing each asana/pose a specific mantra should be chanted to worship the sun. According to the scriptures, if performed correctly, sun salutation does not strain or cause injury. If performed in the morning, it relieves stiffness, revitalizes the body, refreshes the mind and purifies subtle energy channels.

Though the greatness of sun salutation has been greatly said in scriptures not much research has been done to understand its benefits. In an earlier study, it was speculated that sun salutation can be an ideal aerobic exercise as it involves both static stretching and slow dynamic component of exercise with optimal stress on the cardiorespiratory system. A later study assessed the cardio-respiratory and metabolic responses of four rounds of sun salutation, a typical amount performed by practitioners, to determine its potential as a training and weight loss tool. [2]

How To Do Sun Salutation – 12 Steps

Sun salutation is a traditional Indian yogic practice that consists of twelve physical poses. These poses encompass periodic forward and backward bending along with deep exhalation and inhalation respectively to the maximum possible extent. The steps and their benefits are given below with illustrations:

1. Prayer Pose (Pranam asana)

Sun-Salutation-1 : The Prayer Pose (Pranam asana)

This is a pose of doing “Pranama” (prayer) by standing straight on both legs and broaden the shoulder with hands by side and relax. Now inhale and lift both hands together and bring in “Namaskara” position (folding hands in a prayer position) near the chest as you exhale.

Benefits: It gives relaxation from anxiety and mental stress. Gives calmness and increases concentration of the mind in the beginning.

2. Raised Arm pose (Hasta uttanasana)

Sun Salutation 2: The Raised Arm pose (Hasta uttanasana)

From prayer pose, inhale and raise the hands up and stretch the body from toes to tip of finger backward keeping the biceps close to the ears.

Benefits: It gives strength to abdominal, respiratory muscles and intercostal muscles also. It supports the respiratory system and improves the digestive functions. It relieves anxiety and fatigue especially in asthma.

3. Standing forward bend (Hast Padasana)

Sun Salutation 3: The Standing forward bend (Hast Padasana)

Now while exhaling, bend down from the waist and touch the floor with both palms (try to align the tip of the fingers with the tip of the toes), keeping the back erect. One should try to keep the knees straight and touch head to knees.

Benefits: It benefits the back muscles and increases the flexibility. It stretches hips, hamstrings and calves, also strengthens the thighs, knees. By acting on the abdominal muscles it loosen the excess belly fat.

4. Equestrian pose (Ashwa Sanchalanasana)

Sun Salutation 4: The Equestrian pose (Ashwa Sanchalanasana)

By breathing in push back the left leg as far as possible and should be touched to the ground along with foot bent down. The right knee should be in between both the palms. Then look up and stay in the position. Straighten the feet by balancing it on the floor with the help of toes.

Benefits: It balances the central nervous system, strengthens the spine. It tones the abdominal organs like kidney, liver. It increases will power. It increases the lung power.

5. Low Plank (Chaturang Dandasan)

Sun Salutation 5: The Low Plank (Chaturang Dandasan)

Bring the right leg at par with the left leg and exhale. Keep feet together and knees together. Maintain straight & inclined line throughout body. Keep sight on ground at right angle.
Benefits: One gets relief from the pains – specially of arms, legs and the knees. Bulging waist is trimmed and it is good for the abdominal disorders.

6. Ashtang Namaskar (Salutation with Eight Parts of the Body)

Sun Salutation 6: The Ashtang Namaskar (Salutation with Eight Parts of the Body)

While keeping the breath out, gently bring the knees down on the floor, push the hips backwards and sliding forward rest the chin and chest down on the floor. Stay in this position and keep touching the eight body parts like both the palms, both feet, knees, chest and chin to the floor. Slowly inhale as you move to the next position.
Benefits: It strengthens the upper and lower limb muscles and respiratory muscles.

7. Cobra Pose (Bhujangasana)

Sun Salutation 7: The Cobra Pose (Bhujangasana)

From this last position, raise the chest up by sliding forwards while breathing in. The hands are bent and look up towards the sky. In this pose, half of the body is in the air and rest is on the floor. This is Cobra pose i.e., Bhujangasana.
Benefits: It supports and strengthens the back especially lower back with highest compression to lumbar spine. It improves flexibility of the spine and muscles. It is supportive to respiratory, gastrointestinal, reproductive and urogenital systems and becomes beneficial in backache, sciatica, asthma and menstrual cycles.

8. The Mountain Pose (Parvatasana)

Sun Salutation 8: The Mountain Pose (Parvatasana)

The pose is like ‘Parvata’ or mountain. By exhaling, raise the hips keeping the feet and palm at the same position. Place the hands straight, supporting the weight of the body. The head should be placed between hands.
Benefits: It introduces a good stretch to spine. It tones the peripheral nervous system .It strengthens the upper and lower limb muscles. It helps in building strength and endurance of arms, shoulder, wrists.

9. Equestrian pose (Ashwa Sanchalanasana)

Sun Salutation 9: The Equestrian pose (Ashwa Sanchalanasana)

Same as 4th pose. The only difference is you have to bring in the right leg towards chest keeping the left leg unmoved. This pose must be done while inhaling. The right knee should be placed in between both the palms. Then look up and stay in the position. Straighten the feet by balancing it on the floor with the help of toes

10. Hast Padasana (Hand to foot) 10th pose

Sun Salutation 10: The Hast Padasana (Hand to foot) 10th pose

Now while exhaling, bring the left leg and align it with the right leg (try to align the tip of the fingers with the tip of the toes), keeping the back erect. One should try to keep the knees straight and touch head to knees.

11. Raised Arm pose (Hasta uttanasana)

Sun Salutation 11 - The Raised Arm pose (Hasta uttanasana)

Gently inhale and raise the upper body from waist, hands up and stretch the body from toes to tip of finger backward keeping the biceps close to the ears.

12. Prayer Pose (Pranam asana)

Sun Salutation - 12: The Prayer Pose (Pranam asana)

Now gently bring the body at a straight position while exhaling and bring the hands at prayer position near the chest.

Sun Salutation, Mantras, and Meanings

There are certain chakras corresponding to each asanas. It is recommended to synchronize posture, breath, mantras and bring attention to certain chakras when performing Surya Namaskar. It needs complete devotion. Particular mantras are pronounced or chanted at the start of each Surya Namaskar. As Surya Namaskar is a series of 12 asanas, each of it is done with chanting a particular mantra. [3] [4] The twelve different asanas of Surya Namaskara and the mantra are as follows

1.Pranam asana (Prayer Poses) Om Mitray namaha Prostration to the one who is affectionate to all 
2.Hasta utthanasana (Raised arm pose) Om Ravaye namaha Prostration to the one who diffuses light
3.Hasta padasana (Standing forward bend) Om Suryay namaha Prostration to the one who induces activity 
4.Ashwa sanchalanasana (Equestrian Pose) Om Bhanave namaha Prostration to the one who illuminates 
5. Chaturang dandasan (Low Plank)Om Khagay namaha Prostration to the one who moves in the sky 
6.Ashtang namaskar (Salute with 8 points) Om Pushne namaha Prostration to the one who nourishes all 
7.Bhujangasana (Cobra Pose) Om Hiranyagarbhay namaha Prostration to the one who contains everything 
8.Parvatasana (The Mountain Pose) Om Marichaye namaha Prostration to the one who possesses rays 
9. Ashwa sanchalan asana (Equestrian Pose) Om Adityay namaha Prostration to the one who is God of god 
10.Hasta padasana (Standing forward bend) Om Savitre namaha Prostration to the one who produces life 
11.Hasta uttanasana (Raised Arms Pose) Om Arkay namaha Prostration to the one who is worthy of praise and glory 
12.Pranamasana (Prayer Poses) Om Bhaskaraya namaha
Prostration to the one who gives wisdom and cosmic illumination.   

Benefits of the Sun Salutation

Sun salutation accords overall health benefits from cardiovascular to spiritual well-being. As beneficial as it is to health, it is an efficient practice as it requires less space unlike walking and needs no equipments unlike other aerobic and cardio workouts. Some health benefits of practicing sun salutations are discussed below.

Also read – Hatha Yoga Health Benefits

Physiological benefits of Sun Salutation

Sun salutation is ideally done in early morning facing the rising sun, as the sunrays are a rich source of vitamin D and helps to clear the vision. The ultraviolet rays are not very strong during this time. So the skin doesn’t get over exposure to sun. These asanas/poses improve one’s posture, also gives proper workout to the body and thus helps in losing unwanted body fat. [5] [2] Regular Surya Namaskar, when performed in a fast pace, helps to lose excess body fat by activating fat metabolism and normalizing hormonal imbalances. It balances the systems like respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrinal and musculoskeletal system to function better. [6] [7]Surya Namaskar significantly decreases in fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar and Glycosylated haemoglobin HbA1c level in diabetic patients. Its regular practice significantly decreases the oxidative stress of the body which plays a key role in insulin resistance and complication in diabetes patients. It also improves the lipid profile in diabetic patients which plays a supportive role in its complications. This results in the reduction of weight, BMI and waist-hip ratio. [2] [3]Practicing sun salutation helps to regulate menstrual cycles and easier childbirth. It gives exercise to the whole body, hence joints become strong and show increased flexibility. In women, it stimulates the breasts to help firmness normally. Restores any lost elasticity through stimulation of glands and strengthening of pectoral muscles. All new moms can use more stamina and strength to give the best to their babies while breastfeeding. It increases mobility in all joints. It prevents loss of hair and graying. It lends grace and ease of movements of the body. It helps in eliminating unpleasant smell of the body by refreshing the skin, thereby preventing skin disorders. By boosting the blood circulation to the skin and face, it gives its radiant glow back. It prevents wrinkles and early aging. Sun salutation training significantly increases maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure. This suggests that its training improves the strength of both expiratory and inspiratory muscles. It also improves the strength of the intercostal muscles ultimately leads to Increase vital capacity and contractility of lungs. Sun salutation tunes the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system. This effect is a boon for patients with lower backache, diabetes mellitus, and different neuronal weaknesses. [1] [2] [6]

Mental and Spiritual Benefits of Sun Salutation

Apart from the physical benefits, practicing sun salutation gives a spiritual as well as mental well-being. It promotes sleep and calms anxiety, removes lethargy, vanishes all mental and physical fatigue. It revives and maintains the spirit of youthfulness. Sun salutation activates the ‘Pingala Nadi’ (one of the energy channels in the body) which enhances the energy level in the body. Sun salutation carried out in silence with complete involvement always helps calming the mind and to relieve anxiety. Regular workout improves mental health. It exerts positive and better effect on both physical and psychological variables. Its different poses breathing patterns and chanting the mantras produces calm, relax, more stable and stress free mind. It increases creativity, intuitive abilities, decision making leadership skills and confidence. It improves sleeping pattern also. By helping in calm mind, gives a better and more peaceful sleep at night and battles insomnia. [3] [5] The Salutation to the Sun may be regarded as the meditation in the movement of the body. It enhances the mental concentration, and reduces depression, anxiety, and stress. It increases the quantity of good mood and neurotransmitters like Serotonin. The increase in the coordination of the body and mind is good for the aged. Thus, it prevents the risk of cardiac ailments, and increases memory. It creates the serenity of the mind. [6]

FAQs on Sun Salutation

How do you do a sun salutation for beginners?

First and foremost, this is a given for all yoga poses, focus on breathing. The above given 12 poses can be practiced by beginners and alignment should be given a focus since a slight misalignment can cause injuries and long lasting pain instead of benefits. As a beginner, start with 2 – 3 sets and with time the number of sets can be gradually increased. It is important to rest in between each set if you have just begun practicing sun salutation. Sun salutation can be practiced at home but it is advised to start practicing it under the guidance of an experienced yoga instructor. 

However, if you find the above mentioned 12 steps difficult, then you can start with (while replacing some steps) pranamasana (prayer pose), urdhva hastasana (upward hand pose), hasta padasana (standing forward bend), ardha uttanasana (half forward bend), chaturanga dandasana (lower plank), astanga namaskar (salute with 8 points), parvatasana (mountain pose), hasta padasana (standing forward bend), urdhva hastasana (upward hand pose) and ending with pranamasana (prayer pose). These poses should be performed keeping the associated inhalation and exhalation in mind. It will be difficult to incorporate the breathing at first but you will get used to it with practice.

What are the 12 steps of surya namaskar/sun salutation?

The 12 steps of surya namaskar/sun salutation include – pranamasana(prayer pose), hastautthanasana (raised arm pose), hastapadasana (standing forward bend), ashwa sanchalan asana (equestrian pose), chaturang dandasana (low plank), ashtang namaskar (salute with 8 points), bhujangasana (cobra pose), parvatasana (the mountain pose), ashwa sanchalanasana (equestrian pose), hasta padasana (standing forward bend), hasta utthanasana (raised arm pose) and pranamasana(prayer pose). As you can see, the last four poses are repetitions of the first four poses. These positions vary according to the different schools of yogic practices. In some schools, the fifth position is parvatasana instead of chaturang dandasana. Likewise, some schools practice padahastasana (hand to foot pose) instead of hastapadasana as mentioned in this article. It must be kept in mind that focusing on the breathing is as important as keeping the alignment and correct postures. To make the sun salutation effective, the associated inhalation and exhalation must be kept in mind. 

How do you perform a good sun salutation?

Sun salutation is best performed early in the morning in an empty stomach. For a targeted goal, the pace of performing sun salutation is important. For example, if a person is trying to aim for weight loss, study has shown that a fast paced sun salutation is a great alternative to other costly cardio exercises at gym, as sun salutation does not need any implements. So in order to perform a good sun salutation, following the 12 steps with specific breathing rhythm is quite important. Earlier, yogic practitioners used to practice sun salutations outside in the sun, facing towards the sun. However, with the pollution and less space people are getting, many have started practicing sun salutations inside their rooms or yoga studios. But, it should be kept in mind that while practicing sun salutation, windows need to be kept open if you are doing it indoors so that we get the best out of the morning sunshine and fresh air. 

How long should you hold each pose in sun salutation?

Sun salutation can be practiced as per the need of the practitioner. If you are doing a fast paced sun salutation, you need to hold each pose for a breath or two. In other cases, you can hold each pose for as long as 10 to 15 breaths. So on an average, about 10-15 seconds each can be given to each poses for an optimum benefit. And so, a complete round of surya namaskar/sun salutation can take around 3-5 minutes. If you are a beginner, you can take as much time as possible in each pose. However, this all depends on your preference and what makes you feel the best. 

Why do we do 108 sun salutations?

The number 108 has many significance and is sacred in many ways from astronomy to yoga. It appears in ancient sacred texts, like there are 108 Upanishads and 108 Tantras. In Ayurveda, there are 108 sacred points on the body. That being said, traditionally, 108 sun salutations is reserved for change in seasons, i.e., the Winter and Summer Solstice and the Spring and Fall Equinox. However, these days people practice 108 sun salutations any day of any season. It is believed that the internal heat that you build during this practice is cleansing, detoxifying, and gets you more in touch with yourself. In addition to this, this practice helps create and move energy and release stuck emotions. Practicing sun salutation 108 times sounds tiresome but once you start doing it, you start focusing on your whole body and breathing. This keeps yourself distracted from unnecessary and unhealthy thoughts. And believe me, after you complete this practice, you will feel much lighter and more confident. However, it does not matter if you cannot do upto 108. What counts is the intent not the number. 

How many steps are there in Sun Salutation?

There are 12 steps in one set of sun salutation – pranamasana(prayer pose), hastautthanasana (raised arm pose), hastapadasana (standing forward bend), ashwa sanchalan asana (equestrian pose), chaturang dandasana (low plank), ashtang namaskar (salute with 8 points), bhujangasana (cobra pose), parvatasana (the mountain pose), ashwa sanchalanasana (equestrian pose), hasta padasana (standing forward bend), hasta utthanasana (raised arm pose) and pranamasana(prayer pose). The last four steps are repetitions of the first four steps. Usually, one round of sun salutation consists of 24 steps. In the first round, while doing ashwa sanchalanasana (equestrian pose), the left leg is extended towards the backside, the right leg remains in the same position. But, in the second round the opposite leg, i.e., the right leg would be extended and carried on. However, this practice may vary from school to school. 

Can I do sun salutations everyday?

Yes, sun salutation can be done everyday. The most effective timing to do sun salutation would be during the early morning, before the sun rays become too strong in an empty stomach. It vitalizes the whole body leaving you feel energetic the whole day. However, for women, who are on their periods (menstruation), if they have a heavy bleeding, then it is advised not to perform sun salutation. Else they can perform a sun salutation in a gentle motion. Generally, most schools of yogic practices advise a 4-5 rounds of surya namaskar/sun salutation a day for an overall health benefit. However, as mentioned earlier, yoga is not about how many rounds or sets you perform but the frequency and intensity that your body can hold. Every human has different potential and ability, and hence it depends on the individual and also the preference of the individual. The pace of surya namaskar/sun salutation also depends on the preference of the person. If you are aiming for weight loss then sun salutation can be practiced in a fast pace. And if you are a beginner, then you can practice sun salutation in a slow paced manner and also you can practice it with easier poses. 

How many Surya Namaskar/ Sun Salutation should be done in a day?

According to a study, starting from children, who are generally active and limitless flexibility, could be involved in fast or slow pace surya namaskar/sun salutation depending on their energy levels, need, and body conditions. Teenagers who have active metabolic patterns and are healthy are recommended to perform 12 to 24 rounds of surya namaskar/sun salutation followed by Yoganidra (Complete Relaxation Practice) and Pranayama. Middle-aged people are often down with lifestyle disorders these days and they are recommended 6-12 rounds of Surya namaskar followed by Pranayama, and meditation. Old age people who are below 70 years can practice Sun Salutation / Surya namaskar according to their comfort level both with regards to the number of rounds and the postures. These are suggested daily practices for the different age groups of people; however, the concerned practitioner should consider the contraindications involved for any of these proposed practices according to their body conditions. The proposed practice is only a guideline for those who lead a normal life, however, spiritual aspirants who used to practice more than the stated rounds may stick to their schedule (personal communication). [1]

What are the disadvantages of Surya Namaskar/ Sun Salutation?

Surya namaskar/sun salutation has many health benefits however, there are some cons as to the practice of it. People with underlying conditions such as back pain, arthritis, pregnant women, high blood pressure, hernia etc. would need to consult their doctor before practicing sun salutation. As this practice involves flexing and stretching the muscles as well as putting pressures on back and knees in certain poses like bhujangasana, ashwa sanchanlanasana, people with above mentioned ailments need to take precautions or perform sun salutation under the guidance of a yoga instructor. Wrist injuries also get in the way of practicing sun salutation as we put pressure on the wrists as well. Putting in mind all these conditions, a beginner needs to understand the synchronisation of breathing with the steps in practicing sun salutation. And also, if surya namaskar/sun salutation is practiced outside in the sun for too long, there may be overexposure of sun to the harmful rays of the sun and may lead to skin irritation and skin related disorders. 

Can Surya Namaskar/ Sun Salutation reduce belly fat?

Yes, surya namaskar/sun salutation can reduce belly fat and helps in weight loss. The asanas/poses involved in surya namaskar/sun salutation improve one’s posture, also gives proper workout to the body and thus helps in losing unwanted body fat. Regular Surya Namaskar/Sun Salutation, when performed in a fast pace, helps to lose excess body fat by activating fat metabolism and normalizing hormonal imbalances. Sun salutation provides a great cardio workout. Depending on the pace of your sun salutation, they can be a good workout. The faster your pace is, the more challenge you give to your body and hence you burn calories and target fat loss while practicing sun salutation. 

What is Surya Namaskar/ Sun Salutation and its benefits?

Surya namaskar/sun salutation is a holistic exercise that gives an overall health benefit. It includes a series of asanas/poses which are – pranam asana, hasta utthanasana, hast padasana, ashwa sanchalanasan, chaturang dandasana, ashtanga namasakar, bhujangasana, and parvatasana. There are a total of 12 steps in one set of Surya namaskar/sun salutation practice and 24 steps in one round. There are countless benefits that sun salutation can give a body – from cardiovascular to spiritual and mental well-being. When performed in a fast pace, sun salutation is a great cardio workout helping in weight loss. Moreover, it is more efficient than other workouts and exercises in the sense that practicing sun salutation requires less space and no equipments. Synchronizing breathing with each step of sun salutation helps regularise the energy level in the body and also helps in relieving respiratory related ailments like asthma, bronchitis and other diseases. Previous studies have also found that sun salutation is an easier and less time consuming alternative to improve strength, body composition and general body endurance.

References and Further Reading

[1] V. S. L. Prasanna Venkatesh, “Insights on Surya namaskar from its origin to application towards health,” Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 2021. 
[2] M. H. a. P. Gangadhar, “Surya Namaskar for Human Wellness,” International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 81-84, 2019. 
[3] S. Sanadhya, “Health impacts of Surya Namskar (Sun salutation),” International Journal of Yogic, Human Movement and Sports Sciences , vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 584-587, 2019. 
[4] V. Nikam, “A Role Of ‘Surya Namaskara’ For Good Health,” Aayushi International Interdisciplinary Research Journal (AIIRJ), vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 112-119, 2020. 
[5] A. P. S. S. A. R. P. M. R. H. A. S. P. K. S. Komal A Jakhotia, “Suryanamaskar: An equivalent approach towards management of physical fitness in obese females,” International Journal of Yoga , vol. 8, pp. 27-36, 2015. 
[6] K. U. M. P. R. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, “A comparative study of slow and fast suryanamaskar on physiological functions,” International Journal of Yoga, vol. 4, pp. 71-76, 2011. 
[7] M. V. B. G. B. V. D. a. B. D. Pratima M. Bhutkar, “Effect of Suryanamaskar Practice on Cardio-respiratory Fitness Parameters: A Pilot Study.,” Al Ameen Journal of Medical Science , vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 126-129, 2008. 
[8] M. Milind V. Bhutkar, M. Pratima M. Bhutkar, M. Govind B. Taware and M. Anil D. Surdi, “How Effective Is Sun Salutation in Improving Muscle Strength, General Body Endurance and Body Composition?,” Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 259-266, 2011. 
[10] B. R. S. A. A. G. Anand Sharad Godse, “Effects of suryanamaskar on relaxation among college students with high stress in Pune, India,” International Journal of Yoga, vol. 8, pp. 15-21, 2015. 
[11]Cover Image – https://24x7motivation.com/surya-namaskar-step-guide-benefits/
[12]Image reference for Yoga Poses – https://24x7motivation.com/surya-namaskar-step-guide-benefits/

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Mangalleibi Sagolsem
Mangalleibi Sagolsem

I am based in Imphal. I have been a yoga practitioner since childhood and a keen yoga enthusiast.

Sun Salutation (Surya Namaskar) in Yoga
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